Processes in Insight

Click on the process name to jump to the process page of the manual. A brief summary of each process is included below the table.

G: Works with Gathers   S: Works with Stacks   2D: Works with 2D    V: Works with Velocity
Q: Works with Q volume    P: Works with Tau-P domain    D: Works with Delta volume

Gathers Similarity & Structure Trace
Angle Gathers  G (Expl, IGP, GA)
Angle Mute  G V (Expl, IGP, GA)
Angle Stacks  G (Expl, IGP, GA)
Assign Header Values  G (IGP)
Create Gathers  S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Mute Gathers  G (Expl, IGP, GA)
Normal Moveout Correction  G (IGP)
Dip Filter  G (IGP)
F-K Transform  G (IGP)
F-X Transform  G (IGP)
Stacking  G (Expl, IGP)
Polygon Mute  G (IGP, GA)
RMO Correction  G (IGP)
Frequency-Domain Radon  G (IGP, GA)
Deconvolution  G (IGP)
F-X Deconvolution  G (IGP)
Despike  G (Expl, IGP)
Trim Statics  G (IGP, GA)
Local Trace Alignment  G (IGP)
Hi-Res Radon Transform  G (IGP, GA)
Cadzow Filter  G (IGP)
Header & Trace Interpolation  G
Linear Noise Removal  G (IGP)
True-Amplitude Frequency Equalisation (TAFE)  G (IGP)
Plane Wave Dip Filter  G (IGP)
Composite QC  G V S 2D (IGP)
Partial Binning/Stacking  G (IGP)
Tau-P Mute  P (IGP)
Time-Frequency Denoise (TFDN)  G (IGP)
Wavelet Transform  G (IGP)
Minimum Phase  G (IGP)
Dip Azimuth  G S (Expl, IGP)
Dip Field  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Curvature  G S (Expl)
Incoherence  G S 2D (Expl)
Edges  G S 2D (Expl)
Flattener  G S 2D (Base)
Correlation (Similarity) S 2D (Expl)
Semblance (Similarity) S (Expl)
Semblance (Velocity) G (Expl, IGP, GA)
Directional Correlation (Similarity) S (Expl)
Simple Structured Model S V (Expl, IGP, GA)
Trace Chooser  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Trace Mix  G (IGP)
Trace Padding  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Trace Shift  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Autocorrelation  G S 2D (IGP, GA)
Cross Correlation  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Cross Correlation 2D  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Header Maths  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Reassign Geometry Headers  G S 2D (Base)
Reassign Scaling Headers  G S 2D (Base)
Header and Trace Interpolation  G (IGP)
Despike  G (Expl, IGP)
Header Sequence Builder  G (IGP, GA)
Local Trace Alignment  G (GA)
Modeling Pore Pressure Analysis
Delta Model  V (IGP)
LF Model (Simple Kriging) (Expl, IGP, LF)
LF Model (End Member Trends) (LF)
LF Model (Ghost Horizon) (Expl, IGP, LF)
Constrained Simultaneous Inversion (Absolute)   S 2D (LF, QI)
Constrained Simultaneous Inversion (Relative)   S 2D (LF, QI)
Match  G V S 2D (IGP)
PP: Density Volume  V (PPP)
PP: Eaton Pressure  V (PPP)
PP: Miller (No Unloading) Pressure  V (PPP)
Body Detection  S 2D (Expl)
LithoFluid Probability  S 2D (LF)
Spectral Decomposition  S 2D (Expl)
Instantaneous Attributes  G S 2D (Expl)
Attribute Maps  G S 2D (IGP)
Attribute Maps Stack 2D Gather only (IGP)
Picking Filters AVA/AVO
Pick Multiple Horizons  G S (Expl)
Picked Function Model  G (IGP)
Gain  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Automatic Gain  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Phase Rotation  G S 2D (Base)
Band-Pass Filter  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Volume Integration  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, PPP)
Volume Smoothing  G S 2D (Expl, PPP)
Q Filter  G S (IGP)
Convolution  G S 2D (Expl, IGP, GA)
Structurally-Oriented Filter  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Spectral Shaping  G S 2DV (Expl, IGP, GA)
K Filter  G (IGP)
Zero Phase  G V S 2D (IGP)
AVA Stack Rotation  S 2D (GA)
AVO Polynomial Fit  G (GA)
Intercept and Gradient  G S 2D (GA)
Velocity Volume

Anisotropic Model Conversion  G V (Expl, IGP) Velocity Conversion  V (Base)
Velocity Re-Datum  V (Expl, IGP, GA)
Velocity Model (From Well Checkshots)  V (Expl, IGP)
Q Conversion  Q (IGP)
Q Estimation  G V S 2D (IGP)
V0 from Delta and Isotropic Depth Mig Velocities   V D (IGP)
Velocity No-Decrease   V S 2D (IGP)
Volume Combine  S 2D (Base)
Volume Derivative  G S 2D V (Expl, IGP)
Volume Maths  G S 2D (Base)
Volume Maths (Simple)  G S 2D (Base)
Volume Merge  S 2D (Expl)
Volume Re-sampling  G S 2D (Base)
Volume Sculpting  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Volume Interpolation/Extrapolation   S 2D (Expl)
NaN Removal  G S 2D (Expl, IGP)
Simple Mute  G S 2D (IGP, GA)
Detect Mute   G V S 2D (IGP)
Restore Mute   G V S 2D (IGP)
Volume CRS Conversion   G V S 2D (IGP)
Volume Sort   G (IGP)
Enhance Flat   G (IGP)
Frequency Split   G V 2D S (Expl, IGP)

G: Works with Gathers   S: Works with Stacks   2D: Works with 2D    V: Works with Velocity
Q: Works with Q volume    P: Works with Tau-P domain    D: Works with Delta volume

Process Summaries

Gathers
  • Angle Gathers G: Convert offset gathers to the angle domain.

  • Angle Mute G V: Create an angle mute for use in muting processes.

  • Angle Stacks G: Create one or more angle stacks from gathers using a velocity volume.

  • Mute Gathers G: Apply user-defined mutes (angle, offset, hand-drawn) to gathers.

  • Create Gathers S 2D: Construct gathers from multiple 2D or 3D volumes.

  • Normal Moveout Correction G: Apply or remove NMO correction to gathers.

  • Dip Filter G: Filter linear dipping events by slope (ms/trace).

  • F-K Transform G: Transform gathers to / from the F-K domain.

  • F-X Transform G: Transform gathers to / from the F-X domain.

  • Polygon Mute G: Apply polygon-defined mutes to gathers.

  • Stacking G: Create 2D and 3D volumes from gathers by stacking individual traces.

  • RMO Correction G: Apply RMO or trim statics corrections to a volume.

  • Frequency-Domain Radon G: Perform a forward or reverse linear, parabolic or hyperbolic radon transform on gathers (or perform radon demultiple).

  • Deconvolution G: Apply deconvolution to a volume over specified windows.

  • FX Deconvolution G: Apply random noise attenuation via spatial predictive deconvolution in the complex frequency domain.

  • Despike G: Detect spikes and clean up or mark affected traces

  • Trim Statics G: Flatten gathers (stretch/squeeze) guided by correlation

  • Local Trace Alignment G: Flatten gathers at one window using shifts

  • Hi-Res Radon Transform G: Perform an optimised forward or reverse linear, parabolic or hyperbolic radon transform on gathers (or perform radon demultiple)

  • Cadzow Filter G: Performs matrix-rank reduction on constant-frequency slices for the purpose of random noise suppression.

  • Header and Trace Interpolation G: Fill in missing traces and/or interpolate shots, channels, image gathers, inlines or crosslines onto a new increment.

  • Linear Noise Removal (LNR) G: Removes linear energy from records.

  • True-Amplitude Frequency Equalisation (TAFE) G: Control boost with user-defined frequency/gain pairs.

  • Plane Wave Dip Filter G: Computes an optimised, local dip filter (pass or reject) and applies it as a multiplicative mask to the transformed data in the frequency-wavenumber domain.

  • Composite QC  G V S 2D: Generates QC images of the specified input volumes at one or more predefined surface locations.

  • Partial Binning/Stacking  G: Produce a gather volume with records formed by binning traces to a header sequence and stacking them, optionally adjusting for NMO and statics.

  • Tau-P Mute  G: Performs muting in the tau-p or tau-px-py domain.

  • Time-Frequency Denoise (TFDN)  G: Suppress anomalous noise from traces when compared with the surrounding windowed traces.

  • Wavelet Transform  G: Transform data into and out of various wavelet domains.

Similarity & Structure
  • Dip Azimuth G S: Calculate dip angle and azimuth of maximum dip from a dip field.

  • Dip Field G S 2D: Calculate dip by analysing coherent features in seismic data.

  • Curvature G S: Calculate volumetric curvature from a dip field to highlight structural discontinuities (e.g. from faults).

  • Incoherence G S 2D: Measure waveform dissimilarity between nearby traces to highlight discontinuities from faults and other stratigraphic changes.

  • Edges G S 2D: Highlight changes in movement and direction of a dip field using a Sobel operator.

  • Flattener G S 2D: Create stratigraphically flattened (iso-proportional) domains based on horizons and times.

  • Correlation (Similarity) S 2D: Measure waveform similarity between nearby traces to highlight discontinuities from faults and other stratigraphic changes.

  • Semblance (Similarity) S: Measure similarity in waveform and energy between nearby traces to highlight discontinuities from faults and other stratigraphic changes.

  • Semblance (Velocity) G: Create semblance velocity spectra gathers for a range of velocities.

  • Directional Correlation (Similarity) S: Analyze waveform similarity along a specified azimuth to highlight directional features (faults following a structural trend, channelized stratigraphic features).

  • Simple Structured Model  S V: Constructs a layered model using the structure defined in a Window model.

Trace
  • Trace Chooser G S 2D: Include or exclude traces from a volume using one or more header-based constraints.

  • Trace Mix G: Combine samples from neighbouring traces, according to a user-defined weighting function.

  • Trace Padding G S 2D: Pad the top and/or bottom of traces using zeros, mirroring or simple extrapolation.

  • Trace Shift G S 2D: Apply a shift to each trace according to a header value or a constant.

  • Autocorrelation G S 2D: Correlate a volume with itself.

  • Cross Correlation G S 2D: Cross-correlate a volume with another volume, trace, or wavelet.

  • Header Maths G S 2D: Set trace header values using arbitrary calculations.

  • Reassign Geometry Headers G S 2D: Recalculate 2D and 3D geometry headers from headers and surveys.

  • Reassign Scaling Headers G S 2D: Set scaling trace headers (SCALCO/SCALEL) and optionally update related stored values (e.g. SCALCO -> SX/SY).

  • Header and Trace Interpolation  G: Fill in missing traces and/or interpolate shots, channels, image gathers, inlines or crosslines onto a new increment.

  • Despike  G: Detect spikes and clean up or mark affected traces.

  • Header Sequence Builder  G: Write to headers for all traces in the record, based on a statistic or otherproperty of the entire record.

  • Local Trace Alignment  G: Flatten gathers at one window using shifts.

Modeling
Pore Pressure
Analysis
  • Body Detection S 2D: Identify contiguous regions of a volume matching a specified amplitude threshold.

  • Lithofluid Probability S 2D: Calculate lithology and fluid probabilities and perform classification using statistical rock physics models.

  • Spectral Decomposition S 2D: Decompose seismic data into user specified frequencies using a continuous wavelet transform.

  • Instantaneous Attributes G S 2D: Calculate instantaneous attributes for a seismic volume: envelope, instantaneous frequency, instantaneous phase, and sweetness.

  • Attribute Maps  S 2D G: Create attributes maps by retrieving from the header or calculated from the samples.

  • Attribute Maps Stack  2D Gathers only: Configure and show a stacked view of 2D Attribute Map volumes.

Picking
Filters
  • Gain G S 2D: Apply data dependent (AGC) and data independent gains to a volume.

  • Automatic Gain (AGC) G S 2D: Apply data-dependent scaling to a volume.

  • Phase Rotation G S 2D: Apply a phase rotation to a volume.

  • Band-Pass Filter G S 2D: Apply high-pass, low-pass or band-pass frequency filters to an input volume.

  • Volume Integration G S 2D: Integrate data using a running sum or Simpson's rule algorithm.

  • Volume Smoothing G S 2D: Smooth data with optionally increasing weights.

  • Q Filter G S: Apply or remove Q compensation to correct for dispersion and attenuation.

  • Convolution: Convolve a volume with another volume, trace, or wavelet.

  • Structurally-Oriented Filter G S 2D: Remove noise by applying a dip-field based, structurally aware filter.

  • Spectral Shaping  G S 2D V: Adjust amplitudes in the frequency domain using frequency/gain pairs.

  • K Filter  G: Apply spatial anti-aliasing filter to volume before downsampling.

  • Zero Phase  G S 2D V: Zeros the phase of all frequencies in the time domain.

AVA/AVO
  • AVA Stack Rotation S 2D: Project seismic stacks onto arbitrary angles to enhance or suppress different AVA responses (similar to Extended Elastic Impedance [EEI]).

  • AVO Polynomial Fit G: Fit a polynomial to amplitudes extracted along a horizon.

  • Intercept and Gradient G S 2D: Calculate intercept and gradient from stacks or gathers.

Velocity
Volume
  • Volume Combine S 2D: Combine multiple 2D or 3D volumes into a single 3D volume.

  • / Base
  • Volume Derivative G S 2D V: Calculates the first or second derivative of a trace using the finite difference method.

  • Volume Maths G S 2D: Perform complex, arbitrary calculations using volumes and horizons.

  • Volume Maths (Simple) G S 2D: Perform arithmetic operations using one or two volumes at high speed.

  • Volume Merge S 2D: Vertically merge two volumes at a boundary defined by a horizon or constant.

  • Volume Resampling G S 2D: Resample volumes temporally, adjust sample rates, perform time-depth conversion and extents (for 3D).

  • Volume Sculpting G S 2D: Constrain a volume to a region and/or time window using polygons, horizons and constants.

  • Volume Interpolation/Extrapolation  S 2D: Interpolate/extrapolate volumes to fill a 3D region.

  • NaN Removal G S 2D: Replace NaN (missing or invalid values) with constants or simple interpolation.

  • Simple Mute G S 2D: Mute traces using a header value or constant.

  • Detect Mute  G V S 2D: Detects muted regions at the start and end of each trace, and saves this information in the MUTS/MUTE headers.

  • Restore Mute  G V S 2D: Restores a mute saved in the MUTS and MUTE headers.

  • Volume CRS Conversion  G V S 2D: Converts XY coordinate and derived trace headers between two Coordinate Reference.

  • Frequency Split  G V S 2D: Splits an input volume into N output volumes.