Constrained Simultaneous Inversion (Relative)
The DUG Spike Constrained Simultaneous Relative Inversion inverts for relative P Impedance (Intercept), G Impedance (Gradient) and C Impedance (Curvature). No low frequency model is needed, therefore the rock physics covariance constraint becomes very important to prevent noise from corrupting the results.
- In the Control Panel, open the Process tab.
- At the tab header, click the Add icon and select New Process.
- Scroll down and double-click on Constrained Simultaneous Inversion (Relative).
- Type a name for the process and click OK.
Note: Stacks should be frequency balanced. If not, impedance volumes may have different energy spectra. Wavelet spectra should match the highest signal to noise window of the seismic spectra.
Configuring Constrained Simultaneous Inversion (Absolute)
- Blue (+): add a stack detail row.
- Traffic light: include (green) or exclude (yellow) a stack from the inversion
- Name: Enter a label for each stack. Default stack names are generated, e.g. Near, Mid, Far, Ufar, etc.
- Angle: The average stacking angle
- Wavelet: Select a wavelet
Seismic:Select the stack volume
- For 2D inversion, all stack volumes must be 2D
- For 3D inversion, all stack volumes must be 3D
Weight:The stack weight (default 100). Stack weights affect the influence of each stack on the inverted result
- e.g. Lower the weight of a noisy stack to reduce its influence.
- Red (x): Remove that row
Velocity: Select the velocity model to use for time-depth conversion. It is required for all inputs in depth, e.g.
- Low frequency models
- Rock-physics trends (always required)
Water bottom: select a horizon or enter a constant
- The water bottom is only required when using rock-physics trends.
- The Notch Frequency and Top End Frequency are limited by the wavelet bandwidth but it is possible to increase the bandwidth for the relative impedance.
Use weights to influence how much each set of parameters contribute to the inversion result. The inversion solution takes all constraints into account with their associated weights.
The default for most weights is 100. Every dataset is different, so test different weights to determine their influence, e.g. low (50), default (100), high (200) and extreme (1000).
- Seismic Match: the match between post-inversion synthetics and the input seismic.
- HF Damper: how much damping is applied to frequencies above the Top End.
- LF Damper: how much damping is applied to frequencies below the Notch.
- AVO0-AVO1 Correlation: (default 0).
- AVO0-AVO2 Correlation: (default 0).
Invert for Density (Rho)
Enable the checkbox to invert for Density (Rho).
- Vp/Vs: (default 2) the Vp/Vs value is used to calculate the S Impedance from the inverted products.
- Varying the Vp/Vs value to improve signal to noise (S/N) ratio
- The invert for Density (Rho) checkbox and Vp/Vs textfield will be disabled when two or less input stacks is specified
The AVA covariance constraint ensures that the covariance of the inverted AVA coefficients (intercept, gradient, and curvature reflectivity) and associated background trend are consistent with expected rock physics relationships and are not biased by noise.
- Trend Set: Select a trend set (load in the QI tab).
- Lithology: Select the lithology with the expected background covariance.
- Weight: The influence of the covariance constraint on the solution.
Calculating the inversion can be slow. Save time by using output constraints (Window and Area) to limit the results to the target interval.
Specify the vertical output extent of the inversion solution using constant values or horizons.
- Start: the top of the window
- Stop: the end of the window
- Limit to area: Limit the calculation spatially to a polygon or probe
- Set the inline, crossline and time extents for the output.
Note: Inline/Crossline extents are disabled when used as a workflow process.
Set the time extent for the output (applied for all lines).
- Line Set: Select a line set to limit the output to its lines.
- Traffic light: Enable or disable all lines.
- Set Spacing: Enable increment setting for each line, both in distance and CMP spacing.
- For each line:
- Traffic light: Enable or disable this line.
- CMP Range: The first and last CMP to output, and the step size.
- Prefix: If provided, use this prefix for output volumes, instead of the process name
Many output volumes can be generated by the process. The results are grouped by type.
- Enable or disable a checkbox to include these outputs in the results.
- P Impedance relative
- S Impedance relative
- G Impedance
- C Impedance
- Synthetic ...
- One synthetic volume is created for each input stack
- Residual ...
- One residual volume is created for each input stack
- P reflectivity relative
- S reflectivity relative
- Rho reflectivity relative
- Reflectivity ...
- One reflectivity volume is created for each input stack
- Impedance relative ...
- One stack impedance volume is created for each input stack
The Runtime Log window shows the progress of the interactive calculations and error messages.
- Suspend logging: When enabled, the log window is not updated
- When disabled, runtime log messages will appear
A text summary of the inversion parameters.